A finance lease, also known as a capital lease, is a type of lease agreement in which the lessee (the person or business acquiring the asset) acquires the right to use an asset for a specific period of time, typically close to the useful life of the asset. Unlike an operating lease, which is more like a rental agreement, a finance lease usually involves a long-term commitment and often covers the majority of the asset’s useful life.
In a finance lease:
- Ownership: While the lessor (the entity leasing out the asset) retains legal ownership of the asset, the lessee essentially has control and economic ownership for the lease term.
- Term: Finance leases are long-term agreements, often covering the major part of the asset’s useful life. These leases typically extend for several years.
- Payments: The lessee makes regular payments to the lessor, covering the depreciation of the asset and the interest on the lease financing. These payments are structured to cover the cost of the asset over the lease term.
- Maintenance and Insurance: The lessee is usually responsible for maintaining and insuring the leased asset, similar to how an owner would be responsible for these aspects.
- Purchase Option: At the end of the lease term, the lessee may have the option to purchase the asset at a predetermined price. This buyout option is often a bargain purchase option, meaning the purchase price is significantly lower than the asset’s fair market value.
Finance leases are common for expensive assets like machinery, vehicles, and equipment, which have a long useful life and are expected to retain value over time. Businesses often opt for finance leases when they want to use an asset without bearing the full upfront cost of purchasing it outright. Instead, they make regular lease payments, spreading the cost over the asset’s useful life.
From an accounting perspective, finance leases are recorded on the lessee’s balance sheet as both an asset (representing the right to use the leased item) and a liability (representing the obligation to make future lease payments). This is in contrast to operating leases, where only the lease payments are recorded as expenses in the income statement, and the leased asset is not added to the balance sheet. Finance leases often provide tax benefits and can improve a company’s financial ratios, making them an attractive financing option for many businesses.