# How to calculate percentage

Calculating a percentage involves finding a proportion of a number in relation to the whole, often expressed as a fraction of 100. Here are a few common methods to calculate percentages:

## 1. Percentage of a Number:

To find a certain percentage of a number, multiply the number by the percentage and divide by 100.

Example: What is 20% of 150?

``(20/100) * 150 = 0.2 * 150 = 30``

So, 20% of 150 is 30.

## 2. Percentage Increase or Decrease:

To calculate the percentage increase or decrease between two numbers, use the following formula:

Percentage Increase:

``((New Value - Old Value) / Old Value) * 100``

Percentage Decrease:

``((Old Value - New Value) / Old Value) * 100``

## 3. Percentage of a Whole:

To find what percentage one number is of another, divide the part by the whole and multiply by 100.

Example: What percentage is 40 of 200?

``(40 / 200) * 100 = 0.2 * 100 = 20%``

## 4. Percentage Points:

When discussing changes in percentages, it’s important to understand the concept of percentage points. A percentage point is the arithmetic difference between two percentages. For example, an increase from 20% to 30% is a 10 percentage point increase.

## 5. Calculating Discounts or Markups:

To calculate the final price after a discount or markup, you can use the following formulas:

For Discount:

``Final Price = Original Price - (Original Price × Discount Percentage / 100)``

For Markup:

``Final Price = Original Price + (Original Price × Markup Percentage / 100)``

Understanding these basic methods will allow you to calculate percentages in various situations. Excel and most calculators also have built-in functions to simplify these calculations.

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